2017-08-24 09:15:21 UTC
a) the global geometry of the universe ( which is the curvature of the universe)
depends on its density ( the Cosmological Constant)
Today the average density of the universe as whole is about 9.9 x 10-30 g/cm3.
Such small value of the average density cannot ''close'' the universe into sphere
and therefore it is an infinite ''open'' continuum.
b) but in some local places the picture of universe is different.
By some reason, in some local places the masses, and the density is much bigger
than in the infinite ''open'' universe.
In these places we can see Gravity effect.
It means, that in the infinite ''open'' universe the Gravity effect can ''close''
a part of ''open'' universe into local spherical space , and create stars, planets, . . . . etc.
The states of stars, planets depend on their gravity-masses and their speed.
Gravity is an effect of local masses - density and their speed.
Gravity is the local ( curved into sphere ) geometrical part of infinite ''open'' universe.
Therefore local Gravity effect cannot be used to the global universe as whole.
The right question must be: ''Where the Gravity come from?''.
''Where the Gravity - masses come from?''.
c) Today in every scientific book is written about ''the age of the universe'',
and it is about 14 billion years old.
If it so, then light / quantum of light also must have an age.
d) Then the cosmological red-shift (which is assumed to be a result
of the expansion) can have an another interpretation.
For example: cosmological red-shift is the conditions of light quanta.
The cosmological red-shift directly relates to the age of the quantum of light.
The quantum of light can have different age:
the more distance quantum of light travels the older it is.
Israel Sadovnik Socratus.